Table of Contents

This benchmark is very similar to Insert & Erase, but with a Map<std::string, std::string>. It constantly inserts and removes random strings. The benchmark is run with different sizes of std::string: 7, 8, 13, 100, and 1000 bytes. Each time a string is inserted or queried, only the last few bytes are modified. That means if two hashes of the string are the same, std::equal will have to check quite a few bytes, especially for longer strings. Since comparisons and hashing takes much longer for longer strings, I have adapted the runtime for each benchmark:

  • 7 bytes: 20M iterations
  • 8 bytes: 20M iterations
  • 13 bytes: 20M iterations
  • 100 bytes: 12M iterations
  • 1000 bytes: 6M iteratons

The benchmark code looks like this. It takes great care that the random string is not unnecessarily copied or recreated.

std::string str(string_length, 'x');

Map<std::string, std::string> map;
for (size_t i = 0; i < max_n; ++i) {    
    // create an entry.

    // find and erase entry.
    auto it = map.find(str);
    if (it != map.end()) {



Here, libstdc++-v3 hash is uses the MurmurHash 2 algorithm. robin_hood::hash also uses the Murmur Hash 2, but does not care about endianness and uses a slightly different implementation, which seems to be generally a bit faster, especially for short strings. Here the individual entries are extremely interesting, as it shows that each hash has different strenghts.

I have created a separate benchmark, that just compares hashing performance of strings with different lengths. Times are in ns per hash calculation:

length robin_hood::hash libstdc++ absl::Hash folly::hasher FNV1a
7 byte 3.75 5.77 2.61 9.20 5.04
8 byte 3.05 3.44 2.60 8.39 5.63
13 byte 4.23 6.05 8.44 8.84 8.12
100 byte 14.40 15.6 17.70 31.11 102.33
1000 byte 153.82 152.76 77.85 107.73 1228.32

absl::Hash performs very well, but the 13 byte case is almost twice as slow as for robin_hood::hash. FNV1a performs reasonably well for small data, and has the advantage that it is very easy to inline because the code is very short and simple (an effect that can’t easily be seen with such a microbenchmark).

Based on this benchmark absl::Hash should be the winner in the map benchmark in theory. In practice, this is not the case. In practice, robin_hood::hash performs better than absl::Hash - at least in this benchmark. I believe the reason for this is that the robin_hood::hash implementation is much more compact and thus easier to inline and has less code bloat than absl::Hash.


This time, robin_hood::unordered_flat_map is the clear winner, by a nice margin. It has this wide margin regardless of the hash, even more so for slow hashes like FNV1a. It’s memory usage is also very good: tsl::robin_map which has often been the speed king so far, uses more than twice as much memory.

I find it interesting that robin_hood::unordered_node_map is second fastest while at the same time having lowest peak memory usage - even lower than tsl::sparse_map.


Each entry shows total runtime of that part of the benchmark.

  1. blue: 7 bytes: 20M iterations
  2. orange: 8 bytes: 20M iterations
  3. green: 13 bytes: 20M iterations
  4. red: 100 bytes: 12M iterations
  5. magenta: 1000 bytes: 6M iteratons